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Chapter-7 Star

11 July 2022

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Articles
ASTROPHYSICS AND SPACE SCIENCE
4.5
I feel extremely happy in presenting first edition of Introductory Astrophysics and Space Science of this standard treatise to students and Professors. Physics is an indispensable part of training of our budding engineers and technologists. Each chapter has been completely written to reflect what I have learned in last few years of teaching the subject and research in this field. Simplified development of each topic to improve the subject understanding. Presentation of fundamental concepts in simplified language. Well illustrated diagrams. The book not only covers the entire scope of the subject but explains the philosophy of the subject. This makes the understanding of this subject clearer and makes it more interesting. The book will be very useful not only to the students but also to the subject teachers. The students have to omit nothing and possibly have to cover nothing more. We wish to express our profound thanks to all those who helped making this book a reality. Much needed moral support and encouragement is provided on numerous occasions by our whole family. We wish to thank the publisher and the entire team of Technical Publications who have taken immense pain to get this book in time and with quality printing. I am grateful to Professors and students for their valuable suggestions and favorable appreciations. In spite of my best efforts, some errors and omissions might have crept in such a volume. I shall feel obliged if they are brought in my notice and will be corrected in next edition. I hope that all its unique features, the book will definitely cater to the needs of students and professors.
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Preface

8 July 2022
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I feel extremely happy in presenting first edition of Introductory Astrophysics and Space Science of this standard treatise to students and Professors. Physics is an indispensable part of training of

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Acknowledgement

8 July 2022
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First of all, I take this opportunity to place on record my indebtedness a large number of relevant books and journals those I have freely consulted during the course of new edition of the book. I am

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Chapter-1 Sun and Heliosphere

8 July 2022
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stem Astronomers could never see a solar system like ours, until 1995. A solar system is made up of a star with some planets and other objects going around it. In 1995, astronomers found a planet orb

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Chapter-2 Interplanetary Medium and Geomagnetic field

9 July 2022
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2.1 Interplanetary Magnetic Field The interplanetary magnetic field (IMF) is a part of the Sun's magnetic field that is carried into interplanetary space by the solar wind. The interplanetary magneti

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Chapter-3 Instrumentation and Method of Analysis

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3 Measurement of Geomagnetic Filed Different magnetic observatories can measure Earth's magnetic field, its components and different geomagnetic indices. These magnetic observatories are well distrib

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Chapter-4 Space Plasma

9 July 2022
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4.1. Plasma Plasma is one of the four fundamental states of matter. It contains a significant portion of charged particles ions and/or electrons. The presence of these charged particles is what prima

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Chapter-5 Variations of Time Dependent and Independent

11 July 2022
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5.1 Anisotropic Variation Time Independent Variation  As the earth spins on its own axis with a period of 24 hours (a solar day), the asymptotic cone of acceptance of a ground base detector corotates

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Chapter-6 Galaxy

11 July 2022
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6.1. Galaxy A galaxy is a gravitationally bound system of stars, stellar remnants, interstellar gas, dust, and dark matter.[1] The word is derived from the Greek galaxias, literally 'milky', a refere

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Chapter-7 Star

11 July 2022
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7.51 Star  A star is an astronomical object comprising a luminous spheroid of plasma held together by its gravity. The nearest star to Earth is the Sun. Many other stars are visible to the naked eye

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Chapter-8 Supernova

11 July 2022
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8.1. Supernova  A supernova is a powerful and luminous stellar explosion. This transient astronomical event occurs during the last evolutionary stages of a massive star or when a white dwarf is trigg

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Chapter-9 Black Hole

11 July 2022
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9.5551. Black Hole  A black hole is a region of spacetime where gravity is so strong that nothing no particles or even electromagnetic radiation such as light can escape from it.[1] The theory of gen

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Chapter-10 Big-Bang

11 July 2022
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10.1. Big-Bang  The Big Bang theory established the cosmological model which explaining the existence of the observable universe from the erliest known periods through its subsequent large-scale ev

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Chapter-11 Quasar

11 July 2022
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11.1. Quasar It is now known that quasars are distant but extremely luminous objects, so any light that reaches the Earth is redshifted due to the metric expansion of space.[1] Quasars inhabit the c

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Chapter-12 Ionosphere

11 July 2022
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12.1. Ionosphere The ionosphere is the ionized part of the upper atmosphere of Earth, from about 48 km (30 mi) to 965 km (600 mi) above sea level,[1] a region that includes the thermosphere and parts

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Chapter-13 Interstellar explore

11 July 2022
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13.1. Interstellar explore An interstellar probe is a space probe that has left—or is expected to leave—the Solar System and enter interstellar space, which is typically defined as the region beyond

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Chapter-14 Moon

11 July 2022
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14.1. Moon The Moon is Earth's only natural satellite. At about one-quarter the diameter of Earth (comparable to the width of Australia),[1] it is the fifth largest satellite in the Solar System, the

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Chapter-15 Exploration of the Moon

11 July 2022
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15.1. Exploration of the Moon The physical exploration of the Moon began when Luna 2, a space probe launched by the Soviet Union, made an impact on the surface of the Moon on September 14, 1959. Prio

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Chapter-16 Chandrayaan-1

11 July 2022
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16.1. Chandrayaan-1  Moon-craft, pronunciation was the first Indian lunar probe under the Chandrayaan program. It was launched by the Indian Space Research Organisation in October 2008, and operated

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Chapter-17 Chandrayaan-2

11 July 2022
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17.1. Chandrayaan-2  Chandrayaan-2 is the second lunar exploration mission developed by the Indian Space Research Organisation (ISRO), after Chandrayaan-1. It consists of a lunar orbiter, and also in

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Chapter-18 Cosmic Ray

11 July 2022
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18.1. Cosmic rays Cosmic rays are high-energy protons and atomic nuclei that move through space at nearly the speed of light. They originate from the Sun, from outside of the Solar System in our own

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